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建造環境における微生物群集の特徴と人に及ぼす影響の理解に向けて

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  • 伊藤, 光平 株式会社BIOTA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51094/jxiv.169

キーワード:

建造環境、 微生物群集、 抗生剤耐性、 自己免疫疾患、 感染症

抄録

人間は用途に応じて複数の建造環境を使い分けながら1日の大半を建造環境内で過ごしている。近年、「建造環境の微生物群集 (MoBE)」の網羅的な解明が進んでいる。建造環境では、屋外環境などの一部や人間自体が微生物の供給源となり多様な微生物が持ち込まれ、独自の微生物生態系が構築されている。その動態は、季節などの自然要因のみならず、換気、建材、設計手法などの人的要因によっても変化する。本論文では初めに、人間、環境、微生物における相互作用や関係によって生じるMoBEの構成要因を説明する。次に、建造環境における薬剤耐性菌の発生プロセスと感染症拡大につながるリスク要因を評価する。さらに、都市化に伴い人間が多様な微生物に曝露する機会が減少することによって生じる免疫発達への影響など、MoBEが与える人間の健康への影響についても議論する。以上の通りMoBEの重要性が明らかになりつつある一方で、複雑性の高いMoBEから一貫した特徴を検出するためには解決すべき課題が多くある。MoBEの複雑性が高いのは、微生物の発生源が無数に存在し、同時に人間の活動、建築設計や屋外の土地利用など多様なパラメータが存在するからである。さらに、MoBEを解明するための生物学的実験・解析手法にはいくつかの技術的な制限がある。MoBEを人為的に管理することで健康、快適性、生産性等を向上させるためには、さらなる研究が必要である。

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