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Correlation analysis between time awareness and morningness-eveningness preference


  • Sogawa, Reimi Department of Clinical Genetics and Genomic Medicine, Okayama University Hospital
  • Ono, Fuminori Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University
  • Terao, Masahiko The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University
  • Nagano, Shunta Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University
  • Kawabe, Junko The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University
  • Akashi, Makoto The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University




time awareness、 morningness-eveningness preference


The circadian clock is adjusted by light inputs via the retinohypothalamic tract. Because environmental light is controllable for modern humans at the individual’s preference although under social schedules, individual differences in time-related psychology and behavior may be associated with morningness-eveningness preference (M-E preference). To examine this hypothesis, we used the Time Management Scale and Time Anxiety Scale to quantify time-related psychology and behavior. These scales aim to evaluate “awareness of effective time management and utilization” and “anxiety about uncontrollable time schedule and unexpected time-related outcome”, respectively. According to our correlation analysis using mid-sleep time as a marker for M-E preference, we obtained results supporting our hypothesis in the correlation between the M-E preference values and the Time Management Scale scores, with larger “time estimation” and “taking each moment as it comes” scores associated with more morningness and eveningness, respectively. Considering that modern humans likely become night owls under artificial light conditions, it appears plausible that lower awareness of time management leads to more eveningness.


The authors declare no competing interests.

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投稿日時: 2023-02-08 11:21:19 UTC

公開日時: 2023-02-10 05:55:47 UTC